Rumours, speculation and finger pointing still surround a letter that
purports to “forbid” Big Four firm Ernst & Young from practicing in Iraq.
The letter, sent as authorities said the firm was on the verge of obtaining
an accounting license, raised eyebrows throughout the regional accounting
establishment, but the dispute at its heart remains a mystery.
E&Y entered Iraq not long after the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s regime
in 2004. Along with crumbling buildings and routine insurgency attacks, the firm
faced an out of date accounting regime which had standards dating back to the
1930s. The nation still required hand-written ledgers.
The firm has since established a presence in the country conducting business
services but, according to authorities, it is not yet able to audit local
So it came as a shock when the firm learned of a letter sent to the Iraqi
Supreme Court, the Central Bank of Iraq, the Commission of Integrity, the
Companys’ registrar and the Iraqi Banks Union, among other senior institutions,
from the Iraq Union of Accountants and Auditors, which claimed the firm had been
“It has been decided to forbid the accreditation of any financial statements
audited by Ernst & Young (E&Y) company and forbid its operations in
accountancy and auditing for governmental and private sectors in Iraq,” the
The letter, in Arabic and signed by the Union Secretary Dr Rafed Obaid Al
Nawwas, said the union reserved the right to go to “legal authorities to stop
non-Iraqis from conducting audit and accountancy in Iraq”.
E&Y was not sent the letter, but news travels fast in Iraq, and the firm
responded within days. “The Iraqi Union of Accountants and Auditors is an
association of Iraqi accountants and has no regulatory authority,” the firm
E&Y went on to contact Iraq’s chief accounting regulator, which also said
it was not aware of the letter.
The union has not replied to numerous attempts to clarify the letter.
E&Y is one of a number of firms trying to gain a foothold in the country.
Iraq is a frontier land for accountants, promising potential and widely
perceived as a gateway to the wider Middle East, including nearby Syria and
Senior accountants say success in Baghdad would pave the way for success in
the wider region. PwC is also making headway in the region, hoping to benefit
from an estimated $2 trillion (£1.4 trillion) infrastructure spend during the
next five years across the Middle East.
Iraq authorities need the Big Four and the comfort their audit reports bring
to foreign investors. Accountants in Iraq use the antiquated Unified Accounting
System, which includes standards that haven’t been updated since the
mid-nineties and others which are about 70 years old.
It may be seven years since the US-led invasion but, despite millions of
pounds of investment, no accounting firm has yet managed to crack the Iraqi
accounting market. Local laws require foreign accountants to partner with Iraqi
firms or a consortium of individuals to practice in the region, according to
The Big Four have struggled to find firms and individuals of a high enough
caliber to make partnerships. The firms are mindful a poorly managed partner may
pose a significant liability risk. The collapse of a local firm may bring down
its Big Four partner.
Sources said E&Y has spent the past year and a half searching for
partners, and, under Iraqi rules, this means the firm is not yet able to sign
off on local audits.
When asked about the issue, E&Y said it has been operating through a
Iraqi joint partnership comprised of individuals and there were no plans to
pursue a partnership with a local accounting firm.
Confusingly, authorities said the firm was on the brink of gaining a license
to audit Iraqi companies.
Partnerships must be registered with the Company Registrar and the Audit
Advisory Board, headed by Dr Abdul Basit, considered Iraq’s most senior
He told Accountancy Age E&Y has not “submitted any financial statements
for approval” but are “just about to obtain their license”. He also launched an
investigation into the union’s letter, which he believes will not affect E&
Y’s attempts to obtain a license.
“We have requested, officially from the union, to present an explanation for
its letter, to be discussed at the board’s next meeting,” he said.
He said he did not agree with “moral attacks” on auditors unless they commit
a “deliberate violation which affects the honour or the activity of the
profession in Iraq”.
E&Y said its operations have been unaffected by the letter. The firm
contacted the president of the union, but said he was unaware of its origins.
E&Y has defended its relationship with the union which it claims is
“Ernst & Young has a good relationship with the Iraqi Union of
Accountants and Auditors Association, and a number of our Iraqi employees are
members of the union,” a spokeswoman said. “We expect those good relationships
Accounting for iraq: who’s who
Board of Supreme Audit Legislative body that is responsible
for the issuance of accounting standards and policies in Iraq.
Audit Advisory Board Organises auditing and accountancy
profession within the private sector.
Registrar of Companies Authority responsible for registering
Iraq Union of Accountants and Auditors IFAC-affiliated body
which represents accountants in Iraq.
Unified Accounting System Local accounting system used for
statutory reporting. Includes requirements for the maintenance of Arabic
ledgers. Central Bank of Iraq plans to convert Banks financial statements to
Dr Abdul Basit Head of both the BSA and AAB. Considered
Iraq’s most senior accounting figure.
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